INTRODUCTION

The course is meant to ensure that students acquire knowledge and skills in the inspection of

premises of public health importance and write detailed reports. The course will direct the

students to the application of public health laws for premises that do not comply with such

laws.

COURSE AIM

To enable students acquire knowledge and skills in the inspection of premises of public health

importance and write detailed reports.

COURSE OBJECTIVES:

1. Describe different types of inspections

2. Describe procedures of inspecting premises of public health importance

3. Outline the procedure for abating nuisances arising from trade premises

4. Describe the procedure of inspecting offensive trade premises

5. Describe the anomalies that are associated with offensive trade premises

6. Explain the appropriate action that must be taken when an offensive trade premises is

found to be faulty

7. Describe the anomalies that are associated with slaughter houses

8. Outline the procedure of inspecting slaughter houses

9. Outline the procedure of inspecting swimming pools

COURSE COMPETENCIES:

1. Identify types of inspections

2. Conduct inspection of premises in accordance with procedures outlined in Public Health

Act, CAP 295 and Food and Drugs Act, CAP 303 of the Laws of Zambia

3. Inspect premises of public health importance to ascertain their compliance to public

health laws.

4. Identify the nuisances that fall under common law

5. Apply various techniques available for inspecting trade premises

6. Write reports of inspection of premises of public health importance

7. State public nuisances as provided for in the Public Health Act

8. Control public nuisances as provided for in the Public Health Act

9. Identify various types of offensive trades

10. Inspect offensive trade premises to ascertain their compliance to public health laws

11. Enforce legislation on offensive trades

12. Outline various types of slaughterhouses

13. Inspect slaughterhouses to ascertain their compliance with public health laws

14. Illustrate the design and construction details of swimming pools

15. Inspect swimming pools to ascertain their compliance to public health laws

16. Enforce laws related to inspection of premises

INTRODUCTION

The course focuses on the principles of environmental epidemiology, its practical applications

for investigation of public health problems, planning, implementation and evaluation of

intervention strategies to deal with environmental challenges.

COURSE AIM

To equip students with knowledge and skills in environmental epidemiology

COURSE OBJECTIVES

1. Describe the scope of environmental epidemiology

2. Explain key concepts used in epidemiology

3. Discuss measures of frequency of health events

4. Explain exposure assessment and estimations

5. Describe environmental risk assessment procedure

6. Describe health effects due to exposure to environmental factors

7. Discuss epidemiological studies

COURSE COMPETENCES

1. Elucidate the significance of epidemiology studies

2. Explain environmental epidemiology and related sciences

3. Explain the history of environmental epidemiology

4. Conduct environmental surveillance for data collection

5. Calculate measures of health in populations

6. Interpret measures of health in populations

7. Compare the different exposure assessment techniques.

8. Characterize environmental health impacts and their advantages and disadvantages.

9. Integrate the disciplines of exposure assessment to quantify environmental health risks.

10. Conduct risk assessment in different settings

11. Conduct epidemiological studies

12. Recognize relationships between the environment and human health

13. Identify the risk factors during an epidemic

14. Characterize the associations between causal factors and health outcome of a particular

epidemic

INTRODUCTION

The course provides students with an understanding of environmental monitoring and pollution

control. The students will be made to demonstrate the knowledge, skills and attitudes in specific

areas of environmental monitoring and pollution control, and be able to enforce environmental

management laws.

COURSE AIM

To enable the students demonstrate the knowledge, skills and attitudes in environmental

monitoring and pollution control.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

1. Explain key concepts used in environmental monitoring and pollution control.

2. Describe the causes, effects and control measures of water pollution.

3. Explain the causes, effects and control measures of air pollution

4. Explain the causes, effects and control measures of soil pollution

5. Describe the causes, effects and control measures for noise pollution.

6. Describe the human health hazards associated with radiations

7. Describe current environmental issues

8. Describe the role of environmental education in environmental management.

9. Discuss strategic environmental assessment

COURSE COMPETENCIES

1. Identify the Links between environmental pollution and health

2. Explain key concepts used environment monitoring and pollution control.

3. Enforce environmental management laws

4. Describe international conventions and protocols in environmental management.

5. Categorize pollutants

6. Categorize types of pollution

7. Describe the causes, effects and control measures of water pollution.

8. Explain the causes, effects and control measures of air pollution.

9. Explain the causes, effects and control measures of soil pollution.

10. Describe the causes, effects and control measures for noise pollution.

11. Describe the human health hazards associated with ionising radiations.

12. Describe the role of environmental education in environmental management.

13. State the objectives of environmental impact assessment.

14. Outline the stages involved in strategic environmental assessment in Zambia.

15. Explain the importance of public involvement in environmental impact assessment

16. Evaluate environmental impact assessment reports

17. Conduct impact management and monitoring

18. Characterize the association between environmental pollution and the health outcomes

19. Identify various forms pollutants may take

PRESCRIBED READINGS

1. Farmer, A. (2002). Managing Environmental Pollution, Routledge, New York.

2. UNEP (2004). Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental

Assessment: Towards an Integrated Approach. Geneva: UNEP.

3. Wright, R.T., and Boorse, D.F. (2011). Environmental Science: Toward a

Sustainable Future. Boston: Pearson Education,

RECOMMENDED READINGS

1. The Royal Society of Chemistry (2001). Pollution: Causes, Effects and Control. Fourth

Edition. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry.

2. Cheremisin N.P. (2001). Handbook of Pollution Prevention Practices. New York: Marcel

Dekker, Inc.

3. Republic of Zambia (2008) Integrated Water Resources Management and Water

Efficiency. Lusaka: Ministry of Energy and Water Development.

INTRODUCTION

The course assists students to acquire knowledge and skills of identifying occupational hazards

in work places. The students will also be able to explain the implementation of occupational

health and safety regulations and be equipped with critical skills to enforce legal requirements

related to occupational health. Additionally, students will be provided with skills in first aid so

that they can be able to assess the risk of injuries or illnesses from work places.

COURSE AIM

To equip students with knowledge and skills of occupational health in the workplace setting.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

1. Implement appropriate control measures including compliance with regulatory

requirements to prevent or minimise the risks in a work place for the benefit of the

worker and the enterprise

2. Classify occupational hazards and risks ad outline their sources and effects on a worker

3. Discuss various types of accidents

4. and injuries in relation to causes, control and prevention at a work place

5. Discuss diseases associated with

6. various occupations including health institutions by outlining the mechanisms of their

control in order to guarantee safety and health of the workers

7. Conduct occupational health services and risk assessment in an enterprise in order to

establish the safety of the work place

8. Discuss occupational health and Safety services that enterprises are mandated to

implement at a work place

9. Apply relevant legislation related to Occupational safety and health for compliance to

guarantee health and safety at a work place

COURSE COMPETENCES

1. Classify hazards, accidents and control measures in the work place.

2. Record keeping of statistical occupational health data within the area of operation

3. Use the various monitoring instruments in occupational health and safety

4. Conduct routine inspections of work places

5. Enforce legal requirements related to occupational health

6. Perform the process of risk assessment

7. Determine the level of worker’s exposure to hazards

8. Monitor enterprises to ensure that they prove compliance with regulatory requirements

9. Assess the risk of injury or illness from work places.

10. Describe the methods used in the control of dust in a work place

11. Implement appropriate control measures to prevent or minimise the risks in a work place.

12. Analyse workplace incident, accident, injury and illness data

13. Enforce the implementation of occupational health and safety regulations

169

14. Characterize risk factors associated with work environments that generate high

temperatures

15. Use the heat index chart in the work environment to determine the temperatures under

which workers are exposed to.

16. Elucidate the effects associated with the presence of vapours, fumes, gases and mists in a

work environment

17. Enforce the occupational health and Safety services that enterprises are mandated to

implement at a work place

PRESCRIBED READINGS

1. Alli, B. (2008). Fundamental Principles of Occupational Health and Safety. 2nd

edition. Geneva: International Labour Organisation Publication

2. Guild, R. et al editors (2001). Handbook of occupational health practice in the South

African mining industry. Johannesburg: SIMRAC. ISBN 1 – 919853 – 02 – 2

3. Afubwa, S. O. and Mwanthi, M. A. (2014). Environmental Health and Occupational

Health and Safety. Nairobi: Acrocodile Publishing.

RECOMMENDED READINGS

1. Ministry of Labour (2015). A Guide Occupational Health and Safety Act. Ontario:

Queens Printer.

2. International Labour Organization (2012). Encyclopedia of Occupation Health and

Safety. 4th/ online edition. 4 Vols.

3. Guild, R. et al editors (2001). Handbook of occupational health practice in the South

African mining industry. Johannesburg: SIMRAC.. ISBN 1 – 919853 – 02 – 2

18. Monitor enterprises to ensure that management provide occupational health and safety

Guidelines for workers in a work place

INTRODUCTION

This course provides students with background knowledge of information management and its

application in the health sector.

COURSE AIM

To equip students with knowledge and skills in data handling, analysis, interpretation and

presentation for delivery of quality health services

COURSE OBJECTIVES

1. Equip the student with background knowledge of information management in the health

sector.

2. Discuss the various principles of data collection

3. Describe tools used at each stage of the information cycle in collecting quality data.

4. Illustrate various ways in which data can be produced and processed

5. Describe ways in which quality data can be assured

6. Discuss data security and personal health information

7. Equip the student with background knowledge and skills of data analysis

8. Equip the learner with knowledge and skills of presenting data using various methods

according to the nature of the data

9. Equip learners with skills of interpreting information effectively

10. Discuss data submission in context with feedback mechanisms.

11. Enable learners to demonstrate the ability to set realistic goals, objectives and targets in

the management and planning/decision making, the implementation, monitoring and

evaluation of operational plans.

12. Describe SmartCare application as a tool for generating reports, produce graphs and

maps

13. Equip the learners with knowledge of interpreting laws and regulations related to health

information management.

COURSE COMPETENCES

1. Apply principles of information management at any level.

2. Use appropriate tools for data collection in the information cycle.

3. Demonstrate methods of data collation and processing.

4. Identify appropriate indicators for each programme

5. Use indicators in the planning cycle and epidemiological studies

6. Apply standard formulas for data analysis and Interpret data correctly for decision

making processes.

7. Utilizes appropriate performance indicators for measuring staff work performance/and

or self-assessment.

8. Prepare reports based on data collected

9. Present data using various methods according to the nature of the data

10. Use SmartCare for in-putting the collected data11. Implement security measures for authority of access to data

12. Employ regulations on access and disclosure of personal health information in a health

facility.

13. Monitor the operationalization of set goals, objectives and targets in the management

and planning/decision making

14. Evaluate from time to time the set goals, objectives and targets in the management and

planning/decision making

15. Demonstrate the ability to set realistic goals, objectives and targets in the management

and planning/decision making, the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of

operational plans.

16. Develop action plan based on health information

17. Apply tools used at each stage of the information cycle in collecting quality data.

18. Operate SmartCare system to improve the quality of health services.

PRESCRIBED READINGS

2. Heywood, A. and Rohde, J. (2003). Using Information for Action: A manual for Health

Workers at facility level, Equity Project. Cape Town: Belleville

3. Ministry of Health (2008). HMIS Procedures Manual. Lusaka: MoH publications

4. Ministry of Health (2007). DHIS 1.4 Operations Manual. Lusaka: MoH publications

RECOMMENDED READINGS

1. World Health Organization (2004). Developing Health Management Information

Systems: A practical guide for developing countries. Geneva: WHO Press

2. Glaser, J.P., Lee, F.W., and Wager, K.A. (2013). Health care information systems: a

practical approach for health care management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

3. SmartCare Job Aids (2013). Introduction to SmartCare. Lusaka: JHPIEGO.


INTRODUCTION

The course is designed to equip students with knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to

diagnose and manage common human pathogenic infections. The course will also enlighten

students on various statutory provisions (legal requirements) relating to meat, poultry and fish

diseases.

COURSE AIM:

The course equips the student with knowledge, skills and attitude to diagnose and manage

common zoonotic and non-zoonotic infections that affect humans

COURSE OBJECTIVES:

1. Define important concepts in meat pathology

2. Describe diseases caused by bacteria.

3. Describe diseases caused by viruses

4. Describe diseases caused by fungi, mycoplasma, prions and rickettsiae

5. Describe diseases caused by helminthes

6. Describe diseases caused by protozoa

7. Describe diseases caused by arthropods

8. Explain the diseases affecting poultry

9. Explain the diseases affecting fish

10. Describe the various methods used in the disposal of condemned meat

11. Explain the various pieces of legislation related to meat inspection and animal handling

COURSE COMPETENCES:

1. Identify zoonotic diseases

2. Classify zoonotic diseases of animal origin.

3. Tabulate the effects of zoonoses in animal and human populations.

4. Illustrate the life cycles of various parasitic diseases

5. Describe the role of a Health Inspector in the control of zoonotic diseases.

6. Elucidate the public health significance of Zoonotic Diseases.

7. Conduct ante-mortem inspection of food animals, poultry and fish

8. Demonstrate ability to manage suspected and confirmed zoonotic disease during meat

inspection.

9. Provide appropriate and timely information when a notifiable disease is suspected/

confirmed.

10. Illustrate various parasitic infections

11. Notify relevant authorities on the outbreak of zoonotic diseases

12. Recommend appropriate measures for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases.

13. Inspect carcasses of food animals and take appropriate action.

14. Dispose suspected/confirmed meat or meat by products in accordance with the Public

Health Act CAP 295 of the Laws of Zambia.

15. Document important ante-mortem findings of various diseases of food animals, poultry

and fish.

16. Document important post-mortem findings of various diseases of food animals, poultry

and fish

17. Enforce legislation relating to meat, poultry and fish diseases

PRESCRIBED READINGS

1. Herenda. D. (2011). Manual on meat inspection for developing countries. Rome: FAO.

2. Collins D. S. (2013). Meat Hygiene. 10th Edition. WS Saunders.

3. Wilson, W.G. (2005) Wilson’s Practical Meat Inspection. Oxford: Blackwell publishing.

RECOMMENDED READINGS

1. Sastry, G. A. and Rao, P. R. (2002). Veterinary Pathology. 7th edition. CBS Publications.

2. Fernandez, P and White, W. (2011). Atlas of Trans-boundary Animal Diseases and

Animales Trans-fronterizas

3. Blood, D.C. (2000). Pocket companion to Veterinary Medicine. London:

BailliereTindall.

INTRODUCTION

The course is designed to equip students with practical skills in meat inspection. The course

will also enlighten students on various statutory provisions (legal requirements) relating to

inspection of meat, poultry and fish.

COURSE AIM:

To equip students with all skills and knowledge relevant to meat inspection

COURSE OBJECTIVES:

1. Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of personal protective equipment and

personal hygiene in meat inspection

2. Describe anatomy and physiology of food animals paying particular attention to

lymphatic system

3. Demonstrate an understanding of gross/comparative anatomy of food animals

4. Demonstrate an understanding of the important physiological and pathological

conditions related to tissues and organs of food animals including poultry and fish

5. Outline procedure of conducting antemortem and postmortem inspections of various

animal species

6. Outline the important antemortem and postmortem findings

7. State the decisions made at each inspection conducted

COURSE COMPETENCES:

1. Utilise PPEs and practice hygiene during meat inspection

2. Locate key lymph nodes during meat inspection

3. Identify tissues and organs of various animal species

4. Distinguish tissues and organs of various animal species

5. Conduct antemortem and postmortem inspection

6. Apply olfaction, observation, palpation and incision techniques to meat inspection

7. Recognise conditions associated with tissues and organs

8. Identify lesions associated with tissues and organs

9. Differentiate zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases and

10. Demonstrate ability to notify authorities regarding notifiable zoonotic diseases of meat

origin

11. Make reasonable judgement in accordance with relevant legislation

12. Identify appropriate methods of disposing the condemned carcasses or part thereof

13. Outline procedure of disposing condemned carcasses or part thereof

14. Advise on the appropriate method of disposing the condemned carcasses or part

PRESCRIBED READINGS

1. Herenda. D. (2011). Manual on meat inspection for developing countries. Rome:

FAO.

2. Collins D. S. (2013). Meat Hygiene. 10th Edition. WS Saunders.

3. Wilson, W.G. (2005). Wilson’s Practical Meat Inspection. Oxford: Blackwell

Publishing.

RECOMMENDED READINGS

1. Sastry, G. A and Rao, P. R. (2002). Veterinary Pathology. 7th Edition. CBS Publications.

2. Fernandez, P and White, W. (2011). Atlas of Trans-boundary Animal Diseases and

Animales Trans-fronterizas

3. Blood, D.C. (2000). Pocket companion to Veterinary Medicine. London:

BailliereTindall.